I’ll be honest, for the life of me I can’t remember where I picked up Mark Kramer’s tips for stories without a narrative hook. Was it at a conference (Kramer currently directs The Power of Narrative conference at Boston University)? In his book Telling True Stories? My notes don’t say but, regardless, I’ve found Kramer’s suggestions insanely valuable. In fact, I think they’re so useful, this is the second time I’ve talked about them on HowSound.
Kramer proposes that a story without classic narrative can be successful if it contains sharp images, strong characterization, and anecdotes. I like to add a couple items to his list: a unique or strange setting as well as artful and clever production.
Lee Fuoco’s 2004 story “Hafid is Free” meets Kramer’s test. Lee produced this when she was a student of mine back in 2004 and it’s stayed with me all this time despite its lack of narrative primarily because of the strong characterization and creative production.
Have a good listen!
Podcast: Download (Duration: 8:41 — 8.0MB)
Who said “Radio is the theater of the mind?” Was it Orson Welles? Regardless, it’s true. A recent edition of 99% Invisible proved the point.
Alex Goldman produced the story I’m talking about called “Heyoon.” It’s about Alex’s teenage hideaway – a mysterious, hard-to-find building in Ann Arbor, Michigan that he and his friends hung out in back in high school.
Alex interviewed many of his old buddies about the place. Then, when it came time to produce the story, he did what most producers might do: in an early draft, he put together a montage of quotes at the start of the story to paint a picture of Heyoon and establish the mystery.
Over at 99% Invisible headquarters in the Bay Area, Sam Greenspan and Roman Mars were editing the story when Sam had a eureka moment — recreate a visit to Heyoon in Roman’s back yard! A well-acted and recorded dramatization would tap into radio’s capacity to be the theater of the mind.
Sam rustled up a few non-actors who performed an excursion to Heyoon based on the recollections of Alex and his friends. The result is a lively, visual, radiophonic telling of events from many years ago. While a montage of quotes would have worked well, the dramatization definitely takes the story to the next level.
Listen to what Alex and Sam created and how they did it on this edition of HowSound and then, because I don’t feature the whole story, listen to all of Heyoon over at 99% Invisible.
Podcast: Download (Duration: 14:03 — 13.0MB)
Robert Oyo, 17, lies on the floor of his home in a village in Pader District, Uganda. A chain runs from his ankle to the roof of the hut. Robert suffers from Nodding Syndrome, a rare disease effecting young people in east Africa. Parents sometimes chain their children to prevent them from wandering aimlessly, a symptom of the disease. (Photo by Matt Kielty/John Alexander Project.)
I vividly remember the open sore on Benson’s chest. He was sitting in front of me in a jail in Malawi, the tenth poorest country in the world. Benson told me about the night he killed someone in self-defense and how he turned himself in to the police. They locked him in this jail and left him there. By the time I interviewed him, he’d been incarcerated for 28 months and had yet to see a judge or go to trial.
Jails in Malawi are notoriously unhealthy and overcrowded so in those conditions, Benson contracted scabies. His chest sore oozed pus. So did the sore under his arm that he gingerly covered with a napkin. I tried not to stare.
When the interview was over, guards escorted Benson out of the room. I climbed into an air-conditioned pick-up truck and eventually returned to my gated hotel where I ate a full meal sitting next to a swimming pool — all expenses paid. I felt dirty.
The dichotomy of my life and Benson’s life has stayed with me ever since that moment a few years ago. My privilege was never more clear. And, I was being paid handsomely to report his story while he remained locked-up. Worse still, as I write this, I’m uneasy because I don’t know what has become of him.
Perhaps because misery loves company, I was pleased to learn that reporter Matt Kielty had a similar experience after reporting in Uganda late last year. Matt traveled there to report on Nodding Syndrome for the Above the Fray Fellowship — a partnership between NPR and the John Alexander Project. He returned to the U.S. confused and troubled about “objectification.” As he put it “… making a name for yourself and trying to further your career… on the backs of these people who are suffering immensely.”
Matt shares his concerns and confusion on this HowSound. And we feature one of the stories he produced on the syndrome. (Here’s a link to the other story.)
While you listen, I’m going to find out what happened to Benson.
Podcast: Download (Duration: 16:15 — 15.0MB)
Producer Catherine Stifter has an enviable job. She’s been hired by Capital Public Radio in Sacramento, California to guide a change in the sound of the station’s reporting for their documentary program “The View From Here.” Catherine says her task is to “innovate and experiment.” Who wouldn’t want that gig, right?
In addition to changing up the sound, Catherine is building a new approach to reporting. Her partner in the task is jesikah maria ross (she doesn’t capitalize her name) the station’s community engagement specialist. Catherine and jesikah bring reporters together with people from the communities they report on as part of the reporting process. It’s a unique approach that flattens the hierarchy, if you will, between the station and audience.
On this edition of HowSound, Catherine talks about the sound she’s after — less narration, more verite-like scenes — and we listen to examples of that approach in the documentary “Autism Grows Up.” Also, Catherine and jesikah describe the community engagement process they’re utilizing for an upcoming documentary on the high school dropout crisis in the state.
Podcast: Download (Duration: 19:30 — 18.0MB)
The last thing I would tell a new producer is to produce an hour-long program. Invariably, my advice is to start small and there ain’t nothin’ small about an hour of radio.
I certainly wouldn’t advise a “newbie” to produce an hour-long program on silence, the nemesis of radio producers everywhere. And, without a doubt, I would send up flares, stomp my feet, and shake my head “No” about a hundred times if they wanted to approach producing an hour-long program on silence without narration. I’d tell them, point blank, “You’re foolhardy!”
Guess who the fool is. Me.
Conor Gillies and Zack Ezor did everything I would have told them not to do and they kicked radio ass doing it. While Conor and Zack have done some radio production for WBUR, a public radio station in Boston, “Stylus” is Conor and Zack’s first full-on foray in to radio storytelling and it’s nothing short of stellar. Frankly, I’m jealous.
Once you’ve finished listening to the excerpt featured on this edition of HowSound, march over to PRX and listen to the whole program (and listen, too, to Conor and Zack’s influences John Cage, Glenn Gould and Paolo Pietropaolo).
Podcast: Download (Duration: 16:33 — 15.2MB)
Dari Whitehouse and her son Jerry Peckham at Dari’s 50th birthday. (Photo by Zach Hirsch, 2013.)
Zach Hirsch jumped right in the deep end when he was a student at the Transom Story Workshop last spring. Even seasoned journalists might have had difficulty with Zach’s task: interviewing people who have been traumatized.
Zach’s story, “100%”, details the emotional and psychological challenges faced by two victims of the Boston Marathon bombing — Dari Whitehouse and Jerry Peckham, a mother and son. Interviewing anyone can be a challenge for a new producer never mind traumatized people. Zach’s delicate approach offers insight into how to reach out and chat with individuals who’ve experienced disturbing events.
Bruce Shapiro also joins us on this HowSound. Bruce is the Executive Director of the Dart Center for Journalism and Trauma at the Columbia School of Journalism. “We expect the Boston Marathon to be a safe place,” Bruce says. “And when it’s not, the social contract is ripped up, violated. A reporter who goes in and does an interview that in some sense violates a sense of what’s right a second time is going to be on the receiving end of a lot of distress,… anger and betrayal because people who have been traumatized have already been betrayed by the world once.”
There’s another side to this story: the impact of trauma reporting on journalists. I didn’t touch upon that subject in this episode but I encourage you to listen to Diary of a Bad Year: A War Correspondents Dilemma by Kelly McEvers with Jay Allison. Kelly’s is heartfelt, honest, and direct. The story of her struggles reporting from the Middle East are required listening.
PS – I think it’s important for me to say, as Zach’s instructor (and a citizen), I’m very thankful for Dari and Jerry’s willingness to be interviewed, especially by a student. They didn’t have to share their story. I’m grateful they did.
Podcast: Download (Duration: 22:34 — 20.8MB)
I remember the day Molly Menschel said she wanted to produce a story about a dead whale. I thought she would fail miserably.
Molly was a student of mine at the time back in 2004. The whale in question had beached itself in Lubec, Maine a good ten years earlier. I thought “Who would she interview? Who the heck will remember a dead whale from that long ago?”
But, Molly was convinced it would work, that she’d get good tape. So, off she went to the hinterlands of Downeast Maine with her microphone, a tape recorder, and a steadfast willingness to interview everyone she encountered.
In the end, Molly produced one my all-time favorite radio documentaries. “Just Another Fish Story” stands out from the pack because it’s timeless, universal, and oh-so-well-produced. Frankly, I don’t know exactly how she did it. It’s rather mind-boggling that this piece was produced by a student — just her second story ever.
Okay, truth be told? I’m jealous. Listen and hear why.
Podcast: Download (Duration: 12:13 — 11.3MB)
“Word of the Day” goes to Nick van der Kolk. Nick recently used “auteurship” while we were talking about his podcast Love + Radio.
“Auteur” or “auteurship” are not words you hear too frequently in radio circles. I’m not sure why. It’s mostly used in film when describing how a director’s unique vision and style is evident in a movie. Think Hitchcock and Kubrick. But it could easily apply to radio producers like Kitchen Sisters, Ira Glass, and Jad Abumrad.
I’d add Nick to that list, too (along with his collaborator Brendan Baker). Listen to a “Love + Radio” podcast and you’ll hear why. There’s nothing like it in audio storytelling — the production style and the subject matter immediately say “Love + Radio.”
On this edition of HowSound, Nick and I talk about what makes “L+R” unique — why the edits that sound like mistakes when compared to standard public radio editing, and why such creepy characters?
After you listen HowSound, be sure to subscribe to “Love + Radio.” Then, watch Errol Morris’ First Person, a TV series that heavily influenced Nick, and read Victor Kossakovsky’s Ten Rules for Documentary Filmmakers (or watch a Kossokovsky interview about the list). And, while I’m in linking mode, check out Megapolis, an audio festival Nick has a hand in. Plus, Nick works at Snap Judgement.
Okay. Enough links already. Go listen!
Podcast: Download (Duration: 18:50 — 17.3MB)
Photo: Andrew Lichtenstein/Open Society Institute
The most amazing thing happened while I was listening to “Witness to an Execution” many years ago.
I was teaching radio storytelling in a youth jail in Maine with Claire Holman of Blunt Youth Radio. We played “Witness” for about a dozen students.
Smack-dab in the middle of the story, three of the students asked us to turn it off. In fact, one student stood up, waved his hands, and said something like “Stop it. Stop it. I can’t listen anymore!”
The story was too vivid, too powerful, too disturbing. I’d never seen a response like that to a radio story and it stayed with me — and so has the documentary.
“Witness to an Execution” presents, in un-yielding detail, a minute-by-minute account of lethal injection procedures. The story is told by the prison warden and staff at a jail in Texas.
Stacy Abromson and Dave Isay produced the documentary in 2000. It’s easily one of my “Top 10″ best radio documentaries. Have a listen and hear why.
Podcast: Download (Duration: 24:41 — 22.8MB)
Spectrogram of 52 Hz “whale-like” signals. From NOAA.
Some solutions to audio problems are easy.
Got hum from a refrigerator in your tape? Piece of cake. Run a notch filter at 60hz.
If your tape is hissy, throw a high-cut filter on the file.
Someone pops a “p”, cut it close and, maybe, roll off the low end. The p-pop is likely to disappear.
But, what if you have a recording that is well-recorded but you can’t hear it. I know. Sounds like an oxymoron right? But that was Lilly Sullivan’s problem.
Lilly was a student at the Spring 2013 Transom Story Workshop and she produced a story about a whale that sings at an unusual frequency — 52 Hertz. In fact, that’s the whale’s nickname.
Lilly obtained a recording of “52 Hertz” from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and it’s a perfectly fine recording. But, the frequency the whale sings at is too low for most audio speakers. (It’s about as low as the keys on the far left of a piano.) In other words, if you listen to the recording on, say, your built-in computer speakers, you may not be able to hear it. The speakers, to put it briefly, don’t go that low.
Well, how do you fix that? How do you produce a radio story about a sound that most radio’s can’t reproduce? Well, you’ll have to listen to the podcast to find out.
And, I should mention, aside from this arcane audio problem, the story of the whale is a humdinger. I’m certain you’ll love it. Lilly did a great job.
Now, go hook up your best speakers and have a listen.
Podcast: Download (Duration: 17:06 — 15.7MB)